Rue / Ruta graveolens

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ruta graveolens L. volatile oils

The Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) plant is used medicinally as a homeopathic remedy in various areas of the world. In this study, volatile oils were extracted from the areal parts of the plant which was collected from southern India, then investigated for its chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities. The volatile oils were extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and samples were simultaneously analyzed with GC and GC-MS. As a result, a total of 13 chemical constituents were characterized. Representing 100% of the total oil with 2-ketones are the major groups. The principal components were identified, undecanone-2 (43.66%), 2-nonanone (16.09%), 2-acetoxy tetradecanone (14.49%), and nonyl cyclopropanecarboxylate (9.22%), respectively. The extracted volatile oil showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, resulting in a number of common human pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the yeast Candida albicans. The zone of inhibition is from 12.57 ± 0.03 to 27.10 ± 0.02 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were within the antimicrobial activity range and varied between 0.70 ± 0.04 and 1.58 ± 0.05 μg/ mL. The essential oil showed maximum antifungal activity (35.10 ± 0.02 mm) against Candida albicans. This study indicates that R. graveolens L. essential oils could be used as a natural medical application in antimicrobial and antifungal treatments.

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Plant Extract of Ruta Graveolens Standardized in Furanocoumarins: Resistance Elicitorin Rice Plants against Magnaporthe Oryzae

We explored furanocoumarin compounds extracted from herb Ruta graveolens to suppress the blast rice disease by eliciting rice systemic resistance pathways. The plant material was subjected to the extraction method by percolation with 80% hydroethanolic solution, which allowed the obtaining of the furanocoumarins, that were monitored by HPLC.Tests were carried out in vitro and in greenhouse. The experimental design was entirely randomized with 24 treatments and 3 replicates.The concentration of 6.75 mg/mL of extract providedthe highest chitinase activity in the period of 24 and 48 hours before inoculation with the pathogen, with the latter referring to 2.67 and 2.70 mg of glic.h -1 .mg prot-1 , respectively, for chitinase and 6.04 and 7.84 mg of gly.h – 1 .mg prot-1 , respectively for β-1,3-glucanase.The concentrations of 0.7 mg/mL psoralen and 1.2 mg/mL bergapten strongly induced the defense mechanisms of rice plants translating in substantial reduction of disease severity in more than 90%.These results underscore the potential application of a plant extract containing furanocoumarins to mitigate the bursting burden of rice by increasing the mechanisms of systemic resistance. The use of plant extracts allows the reduction of the disease through several different mechanisms, which makes this strategy very efficient and innovative.

Keywords: Rue, Blast, Induction of resistance, PRPs

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Rue monograph

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