Rosemary / Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosmarinus officinalis
Aetheroleum Rosmarini

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DNA protective effect of rosmarinus officinalis total extract in mouse peripheral blood

Rosmarinus officinalis is a common household aromatic plant widely used in cosmetic, food and folk medicine. The aim of this study was evaluated rosmarinus total extract (RTE) protective effect on DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) and evidence the lack of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of RTE in peripheral blood erythrocytes of Balb-C mice using the micronucleus assay. To evaluate the DNA protective effect, the dose of 100mg/kg of RTE was used and given orally. Following was the admiration of CP (50mg/kg). To evaluated the lack genotoxic or cytotoxic, three doses (30, 100 and 300mg/kg) of RTE were administered orally. A drop of blood was obtained from the tip of the tail of each mouse 24h for six days. We found no increase of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) or micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE). Nor did polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) decline in mice treated with one of the three different doses of RTE. RTE extracts were capable of diminished DNA damage caused by CP thus reducing MNE and MNPCE frequencies. The lack of genotoxic and cytotoxic effect of the RTE and reduces the genotoxicity caused by CP, suggest the potential therapeutic usefulness of this plant extract.

Keywords: genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, micronucleus, DNA protective effect, rosmarinus total extract

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Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil in Mice

Essential oils are plant secondary metabolites possessing various pharmacological properties, primarily anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulative, but they can exhibit toxic and allergic effects as well. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw oedema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. ICR mice received rosemary essential oil at three concentrations (1 250, 2 500 and 5 000 ppm) in the standard laboratory diet starting two weeks before the experiments. The inflammation of paws induced by carrageenan application was evaluated by measurement of paw swelling, paw weight and myeloperoxidase activity. In the TNBS model the mice were killed by cervical dislocation 3 days after colitis induction and the mortality, changes in the body weight of mice, colon weight : body weight ratio, macroscopical scores and myeloperoxidase activity were analysed. Furthermore, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine levels in colonic tissue were quantified using ELISA assay. Dietary supplementation with 5 000 ppm of rosemary essential oil initially after 2 h increased but after 24 h suppressed the extent of paw oedema. The same dose in the TNBS model exhibited protective effects on colonic mucosa and significantly decreased macroscopic scores for colonic inflammation. On the other hand, in colon samples from mice fed the diet with 1 250 ppm of rosemary essential oil we detected decreased myeloperoxidase activity and significantly lower levels of IL-6 compared to TNBS control animals. Our results indicate that rosemary essential oil is able to influence several variables of murine experimental inflammatory models depending on the concentration used. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary essential oil should be interpreted carefully due to its timeand dose-related effects.

Inflammation, TNBS colitis, carrageenan paw oedema, rosemary essential oil, cytokines

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Rosemary monograph


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