Allium cepa

Allium cepa

Allium cepa monograph Allium cepa l. Definition Allium cepa Bulbus Allii Cepae is the fresh or dried bulbs of Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) or its varieties and cultivars. Synonyms Allium esculentum Salisb., Allium porrum cepa Rehb. Description A perennial herb, strong smelling when crushed; bulbs vary in size and shape from cultivar to cultivar, often depressed-globose and up to 20 cm in diameter; outer tunics membranous. Stem up to 100cm tall and 30 mm in diameter, tapering from inflated lower part. Leaves up to 40 cm in height and 20mm in diameter, usually almost semicircular in section and slightly flattened on upper side; basal in first year, in second year their bases sheathing the lower sixth of the stem. Spathe often 3-valved, persistent, shorter than the umbel. Umbel 4– 9cm in diameter, subglobose or hemispherical, dense, many-flowered; pedicels up to 40mm, almost equal. Perianth stellate; segments 3–4.5 × 2–2.5mm, white, with green stripe, slightly unequal, the outer ovate, the inner oblong, obtuse or acute. Stamens exserted; filaments 4–5mm, the outer subulate, the inner with an expanded base up to 2 mm wide and bearing short teeth on each side. Ovary whitish. Capsule about 5mm, 2n = 16 Plant material of interest: fresh or dried bulbs Major chemical constituents Sulfur- and non-sulfur-containing chemical constituents have been isolated from Bulbus Allii Cepae; the sulfur compounds are the most characteristic. The organic sulfur compounds of Bulbus Allii Cepae, including the thiosulfinates, thiosulfonates, cepaenes, S-oxides, S,S’-dioxides, monosulfides, disulfides, trisulfides, and zwiebelanes occur only as degradation products of the naturally occurring cysteine sulfoxides (e.g. (+)-S-propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide). When the onion bulb is crushed, minced, or...
The use of medicinal plants

The use of medicinal plants

Uses of medicinal plants Medicinal plants are ever companions of human evolution, we went together in this adventure to evolve and therefore the human body feels very comfortable when is helped to regain health through these very old companions of all existence. Conventional medicine damages For many years we firmly believed to have found the “key to health” with patent or conventional medicine methods, it was no wonder; conventional medicine surprised us with its high efficiency, however we did not take long to realize that security was and remains a problem, acute side effects and iatrogenic consequences that drugs cause was a bad lesson, some long term as metformin and glibenclamide but others almost immediately as benzodiazepines and anti-inflammatory steroids. Waking up to a better medicine This woke us up from that fantasy health we live and now at the beginning of this century characterized for the information and access to it we have realized that the human body still prefer to be treated with the affection of the natural evolution represented by medicinal plants and not with the aggressiveness of patented drugs that long term has already given us a lesson of less health and damage. One of the most used medicinal plants in te conventional medicine is the amapole Papaver somniferum to produce opioids nalgesics. Prescribe conventional only if necessary We have not failed completely with conventional medicine but we now know that this should be prescribed only to face a high emergency and pondering the welfare of the patient, prescribing this only to an urgent needing and not with the first signs of any discomfort that...

Salvia divinorum Kappa opioids receptors binding

Salvia divinorum and salvinorin “a” Salvia divinorum is a halucinogenic plant, endemic from the mazatecs mountains in Oaxaca Mexico, Salvinorin A is the major active secondary metabolite isolated from this genus and is the first non-alkaloidal natural opioid with high afinity for the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). A flower of Salvia divinorum captured by Carlos Alfonso in 1999 A substance is defined as an opioid if show affinity for one or more of the major 7TM-GPCR subtypes of opioid receptors MOR, DOR, KOR, ORL-1 or if has a morphine-like in vivo effect.   As shown in vivo studies Salvia divinorum is the first non-alkaloidal opiod agonist and non-serotoninergic hallucinogen. A mexican healing ritual Mexican indian people use Salvia divinorum in traditional ceremonias for divination purposes and as in traditional medicine for healing diseases as diarrhea, headache, coughs, sadness (depresión), restlessness (anxiety), pain and other inflammatory diseases; they dont know but most of the traditional uses described are related to the high affinity of Salvia divinorum to Kappa opioid receptor as the in vitro and in vivo studies has displayed.   Salvadinorin A is an KOR (kappa opiod receptor) agonist and it produces antinociceptive effects (in animals), antidepressants, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal activities in vivo. About the author Carlos Alfonso. Specialist in phytotheraphy, degreed by Barcelona University as master, 25 years experienced in medicinal plants topics. Actually CEO of Aztecasplants company. Bibliography. Jordan K. Zjawiony; Salvinorin A example of a Non-alkaloidal bioactive opioid from a plant source....