Acceptability and Suitability of Athel, Tamarix aphylla, to the Leaf Beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a Biological Control Agent of Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.)
The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brulle´) sensu lato has been released in the western United States for the classical biological control of exotic saltcedars (Tamarix species and hybrids). However, athel (T. aphylla [L.] Karsten), an exotic, moderately valued evergreen species in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, has not been targeted for biological control. All populations ofD. elongatapreviously examined,including those promising for releasein southern areas of the saltcedar infestation, develop and oviposit on athel. Therefore, we assessed more fully the acceptability and suitability of athel to three D. elongata populations (Tunisia, Crete, and Uzbekistan).
All populations of D. elongata laid similar numbers of eggs on athel and saltcedar in no-choice tests. In multiple- and paired-choice tests, oviposition on saltcedar was generally greater than on athel but with some notable exceptions and inconsistencies within populations. Increasing cage size delayed the colonization of and oviposition on test plants by small groups of adult beetles but did not change the pattern of egg-laying. For Crete beetles, survival and development were similar for larvae fed athel or saltcedar. Adult size was negatively affected by a larval diet of athel. An adult diet of athel did not reduce lifetime fecundity, although it did decrease egg mass size and delayed the start of oviposition. As a result, the innate capacity for increase decreased. The potential for damage to athel by D. elongata may be higher than previously thought; however, this may be offset by the potential for increased invasiveness of athel.
KEY WORDS weed biological control, Diorhabda elongata, athel, saltcedar, Tamarix aphylla
More information: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/pubag/downloadPDF.xhtml?id=703&content=PDF
In vitro Antimicrobial Study of Tamarix aphylla in View of Phytochemical Constituents
Background and Objective: The present study was investigated to aim with the screening of selected medicinal plant to substantiate in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla bark against microbial strains and designed to provide scientific evidence for its use as a folk remedy in view of phytochemical constituents.
Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and fungal strains including Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were tested using dilutions of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg mLG1 of the stock solution prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) via disc diffusion assay. Inhibitory effect of extract in millimeters was determined by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the discs and compared with the standard drug.
Results: Investigation revealed that extract of Tamarix aphylla bark was found to exhibit marked zone of inhibition at higher concentration in most of the bacterial and fungal strains examined. Conclusion: The present study suggests the presence of great potential of bioactive and phytochemical compounds rationalizing the use of this plant in primary health care.
Key words: Medicinal plant, antibacterial, antifungal activities, zone of inhibition
More information: http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/pharmacologia/2015/333-336.pdf