- Clinical data 90%
- Efficacy 80%
- Security 85%
- Toxicity 15%
Raphanus niger, Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. Sativus
Major chemical constituents
Essential oil, very volatile. It contains sulfur compounds (0.0025%) among which the glucosinolates stand out (heterosidic anionic compounds, responsible for the intense smell of most of the Brasicáceas). Of these, the most important is 3-indole-methylglycosinolate, which by the action of the enzyme mirosinase generates isothiocyanate of E-4-methylthio-3-butenyl. Also important are sulforalens and allyl isothiocyanate (resulting from the degradation of glucorfanfanin and sinigróside); glucobrassicin, sinapine, butyl isothiocyanate, raphanol, pelargonidin derivatives, methylmercaptan and glucoputranjivin.
Others: glucoraphenina (by hydrolysis produces sulfurafenos like raphanina), small amounts of vitamin B and C, enzymes (oxidases, peroxidasas), anthocyanidins (mainly present in the pink varieties).
Medicinal uses of Raphanus sativus L. var niger
Commission E approves its use for the treatment of dyspepsia related to biliary dyskinesias and colds of the respiratory tract.
Traditionally it is also used to facilitate the elimination of small urinary stones.
No clinical studies with black radish have been published.
At the digestive level, the consumption of root juice or its extracts exert aperitive, eupeptic, laxative activity by stimulating intestinal peristalsis. On the other hand it stimulates the smooth muscle of the gallbladder, determining a cholagogue activity. It also highlights the hepatoprotective activity. In all these actions would play an important role sulfur compounds essential oil such as isothiocyanates, and some glycosides such as raphanin. Other activities indicated for the essential oil, are the antibacterial and antifungal properties. At the respiratory level, the balsamic-expectorant properties stand out. In animal models, the instillation of juice drops in intranasal form has been shown to prevent experimentally inoculated influenza.
Recent studies indicate the efficacy of fresh radish juice in experimental diabetes. As for the derivatives of pelargonidin, they showed antioxidant effects.
Obstruction of the bile ducts.
Although it has not been described in the case of radish, it should be noted that some glucosinolates have an antithyroid action, capable of inducing goiter, hence patients who have thyroid function normalizing treatment should consult their doctor before to consume extracts of black radish.