- Clinical data 90%
- Efficacy 80%
- Secutiry 70%
- Toxicity 30%
Eucalyptus cordata Miq., E. diversifolia Miq., E. gigantea Dehnh., E. glauca D.C., E. globulus St Lag., E. pulverulenta Link.
Leaf lanceolate-falcate, bifacial, 8–30cm long, 2–7cm wide; petiole twisted, strongly wrinkled, 2–3cm, occasionally 5cm, in length; apex, when present, acute or acuminate; base unequal, obtuse or somewhat rounded, margin uneven, revolute; ventral and dorsal surfaces greyish-green to pale yellowishgreen, coriaceous, glaucous, glabrous, glandular punctate, with numerous small, rounded, brown dots of cork; venation pinnate-reticulate, veins of the first order running to a short distance from margin where they are anastomosed and form a vein nearly parallel with the margin.
Major chemical constituents
Dried leaves contain 1–3% (v/w) essential oil (fresh leaves contain 0.4–1.6%), the major constituent of which is 1,8 cineole (54–95%). In addition, there are moderate amounts of other monoterpenes, including a-pinene (2.6%), pcymene (2.7%), aromadendrene, cuminaldehyde, globulol and pinocarveol. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of the oil indicated the presence of more than 70 components, 48 of which were identified. The concentration of a-terpeneol was estimated to be 28%. The leaves are rich in tannins and ellagitannins, and also contain 2–4% triterpenes (ursolic acid derivatives), a series of phloroglucinol-sesquiterpene coupled derivatives (macrocarpals B, C, D, E, H, I and J) and flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, quercitrin and hyperoside).
Medicinal uses of Eucalyptus globulus
Uses supported by clinical data
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine
Eucalyptus globulus as an expectorant for symptomatic treatment of mild inflammation of the respiratory tract and bronchitis. Also for symptomatic treatment of asthma, fever and inflammation of the throat.
Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data
Treatment of cystitis, diabetes, gastritis, kidney disease (unspecified), laryngitis, leukorrhoea, malaria, pimples, ringworm, wounds, ulcers of the skin, urethritis and vaginitis.
Antibacterial and antifungal activity
An ethanol–water extract of Folium Eucalypti inhibited the growth in vitro of Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 25mg/ml. An aqueous leaf extract inhibited the growth in vitro of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC 0.07–1.30mg/ml). A methanol extract of the leaves inhibited the growth in vitro of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans (MIC 1.25–10.00mg/ml). A fluidextract of the leaves inhibited the growth in vitro of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC 6.25mg/ml) (24). A methanol–water extract of the leaves inhibited the growth in vitro of Candida albicans.
An aqueous leaf extract inhibited the replication of influenza virus A2 (Mannheim 57), vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro at a concentration of 0.1%.
Intragastric administration of a hexane leaf extract to mice (100mg/kg body weight) did not inhibit the growth of Plasmodium berghei. Furthermore, administration of an aqueous (3.48 g/kg body weight) or chloroform (264mg/kg body weight) leaf extract to chickens by gastric lavage did not inhibit the growth of P. gallinaceum. An ethanol–water extract of the leaves inhibited the growth in vitro of P. falciparum at a concentration of 75mg/ml.
A hot aqueous extract of the leaves suppressed streptozocin-induced hyperglycaemia in mice when added to the diet (6.25%) and drinking-water (0.25%). The same extract did not stimulate insulin production by the pancreas. However, intragastric administration of aqueous or ethanol extracts of the leaves at a dose of 1 g/kg body weight did not suppress alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia in mice and rabbits.
Preparations of Folium Eucalypti should not be administered internally to children or patients with inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder disease or impaired liver function.
Folium Eucalypti preparations should not be applied to the face, especially the nose, of infants or young children. Keep out of reach of children.
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