- Clinical data 90%
- Efficacy 80%
- Security 70%
- Toxicity 30%
Boldea fragans, Peumus boldus
Major chemical constituents
The active substances are isoquinoline alkaloids derived from aporphine and noraporphine (0.2-0.5%) of which more than twenty have been isolated, highlighting in proportion the boldine and others in smaller quantity such as isoboldine, (+) reticulin, laurotetanin and laurolitsin.
Contains essential oil (1-3%) composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (para-cymene, α and β-pinene, γ-terpinene, limonene, β-phellandrene), oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineol, linalool, camphor, ascaridol) . It also has flavonoids (ramnetol, isorramnetol, kempferol) and tannins (1-2%).
Medicinal uses of Peumus boldus
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approves its traditional use for the symptomatic relief of dyspepsia and mild gastrointestinal affections of spasmodic character.
ESCOP also indicates the use of minor hepatobiliary dysfunctions and as a coadjuvant in the treatment of constipation.
A digestive action (aperitive, choleretic, cholagogue) has been described as well as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiateromatose (inhibits lipid peroxidation), hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anthelmintic, fungicidal, cytoprotective, antitumor. The essential oil has bactericidal activity.
It is contraindicated in case of obstruction of the biliary tract, cholangitis, liver disease, biliary lithiasis and other conditions that require medical control.
Commission E recommended not to use pure essential oil, due to its content in ascaridol, however not always boldo essential oil is rich in ascaridol.
There is not enough information to guarantee the safety of its use during pregnancy, breastfeeding and children under 18 years of age. A case of jaundice has been described, with elevation of transaminases in a patient of 72 years, possibly related to the taking of bolus infusions.
No clinically significant interactions have been described. It is suspected that it could reduce the uptake of Technetium 99 in erythrocytes in diagnostic tests. A case has been described in which taking it combined with boldo, reduced the levels of tacrolimus in a renal transplant.