White Sapote / Casimiroa edulis

White Sapote / Casimiroa edulis

Central nervous system activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Casimiroa edulis in rats and mice In order to evaluate the effects produced by the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Casimiroa edulis on the central nervous system, different behavioral tests and animal models of depression and anxiety were performed. The extract was administered intraperitoneally in male and female rats and tested on spontaneous motor activity, locomotor activity, exploration of an elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST). In addition, the extract was administered orally in male and female mice and evaluated in the following tests: general observation, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, EPM, rota-rod, hole-board, and marble-burying. The results revealed that, in rats, the extract caused considerable reduction of locomotor and exploratory activities and increased the exploration of the EPM open arms in a similar way that diazepam. In the FST, the extract was as effective as fluoxetine in inducing shortening of immobility, along with a significant increase on climbing duration. On the other hand, in mice, the extract prolonged pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, increased exploration of the EPM open arms and partially protected from the pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions. No significant effect was evident on motor coordination, hole-board and marble-burying tests. These results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Casimiroa edulis may contain sedative principles with potential anxiolytic and antidepressant properties, which need further investigation. More information: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4200/b3809d116ec214f3a4c8e1f39de3984296ee.pdf Genetic Diversity of White Sapote (Casimiroa edulis La Llave & Lex.) Demonstrated by Intersimple Sequence Repeat Analysis Phylogenic relationships among 31 cultivars of white sapote (Casimiroa edulis La Llave & Lex.) were examined by intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. Polymorphic fragments were obtained in 24...
Trumpet Tree / Cecropia obtusifolia

Trumpet Tree / Cecropia obtusifolia

Hypoglycemic effect of Cecropia obtusifolia on streptozotocin diabetic rats The hypoglycemic effects of water and butanolic extracts prepared from leaves of Cecropia obtusifolia (Cecropiaceae) were examined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. A single oral administration of a water extract at doses of 90 and 150 mg/kg and of a butanol extract at doses of 9 and 15 mg/kg significantly (P0.05) lowered the plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats after 3 h administration. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar hypoglycemic effect to the tested extracts at a dose of 3 mg/kg. The flavone, isoorientin and 3-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), were isolated as the important constituents of the plant and were identified as the main constituents in both extracts, too. More information: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.715.8300&rep=rep1&type=pdf Genotoxicity testing of Cecropia obtusifolia extracts in two in vivo assays: The wing somatic mutation and recombination test of Drosophila and the human cytokinesis-block micronucleus test Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. (Cecropiaceae) is a tree that grows in secondary vegetation in the tropical rain forest along both coasts of Mexico. Its leaves are used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of the present studies was the evaluation of possible genotoxic effects of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Cecropia obtusifolia by means of two different experimental assay models: the wing somatic mutation and recombination test in flies and the micronucleus test from lymphocytes obtained from patients treated with the extract. No toxicity was found to be induced by the leaves of Cecropia obtusifolia. The Drosophila wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was applied in the standard version with basal...
Monkey’s Hand Tree / Chiranthodendron pentadactylon

Monkey’s Hand Tree / Chiranthodendron pentadactylon

Antiprotozoal, Antibacterial and Antidiarrheal Properties from the Flowers of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon and Isolated Flavonoids Background: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat. (Sterculiaceae) is a Mexican plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of heart disease symptoms and infectious diarrhea. Objective: To evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities and in vivo antidiarrheal activity from the flowers of C. pentadactylon using the extract, fractions, and major isolated flavonoids. Materials and methods: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of C. pentadactylon (MECP) led to the isolation of five flavonoids, tiliroside, astragalin, isoquercitrin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin. Antimicrobial activities were tested on two protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia) and nine bacterial enteropathogens (two Escherichia coli strains, two Shigella sonnei strains, two Shigella flexneri strains, two Salmonella sp. strains, and Vibrio cholerae) isolated from feces of children with acute diarrhea or dysentery and resistant to chloramphenicol. Also, antidiarrheal activity was tested on cholera toxin-induced diarrhea in male Balb-c mice. Results: Epicatechin was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 1.9 μg/mL for E. histolytica and 1.6 μg/mL for G. lamblia; tiliroside showed moderate antiprotozoal activity against both protozoan. In contrast, in the antibacterial activity, tiliroside was the most potent compound on all microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentration values less than 0.7 mg/mL. In the case of cholera toxininduced diarrhea, epicatechin was the most potent flavonoid with IC50 of 14.7 mg/kg. Conclusion: Epicatechin and tiliroside were the flavonoids responsible for antimicrobial andantidiarrheal activities of C. pentadactylon. Its antiprotozoal, antibacterial, and antidiarrheal properties are in good agreement with the traditional medicinal use of C. pentadactylon for the treatment of infectious diarrea. More information:...
Kidneywood / Eysenhardtia polystachya

Kidneywood / Eysenhardtia polystachya

The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. The EE was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, and its fractions at 25 mg/kg/day in all animal models. Antiarthritic activity was evaluated using a complete Freund´s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rheumatoid arthritis model in rats. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by changes in paw oedema, body weight, arthritic index, radiological scores, histological assessment of synovial joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, serum rheumatoid factor, serum C-reactive protein and serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using an acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction test and a hot-plate test in mice. EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management. Keywords:...