Monkey’s Hand Tree / Chiranthodendron pentadactylon

Monkey’s Hand Tree / Chiranthodendron pentadactylon

Antiprotozoal, Antibacterial and Antidiarrheal Properties from the Flowers of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon and Isolated Flavonoids Background: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat. (Sterculiaceae) is a Mexican plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of heart disease symptoms and infectious diarrhea. Objective: To evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities and in vivo antidiarrheal activity from the flowers of C. pentadactylon using the extract, fractions, and major isolated flavonoids. Materials and methods: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of C. pentadactylon (MECP) led to the isolation of five flavonoids, tiliroside, astragalin, isoquercitrin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin. Antimicrobial activities were tested on two protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia) and nine bacterial enteropathogens (two Escherichia coli strains, two Shigella sonnei strains, two Shigella flexneri strains, two Salmonella sp. strains, and Vibrio cholerae) isolated from feces of children with acute diarrhea or dysentery and resistant to chloramphenicol. Also, antidiarrheal activity was tested on cholera toxin-induced diarrhea in male Balb-c mice. Results: Epicatechin was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 1.9 μg/mL for E. histolytica and 1.6 μg/mL for G. lamblia; tiliroside showed moderate antiprotozoal activity against both protozoan. In contrast, in the antibacterial activity, tiliroside was the most potent compound on all microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentration values less than 0.7 mg/mL. In the case of cholera toxininduced diarrhea, epicatechin was the most potent flavonoid with IC50 of 14.7 mg/kg. Conclusion: Epicatechin and tiliroside were the flavonoids responsible for antimicrobial andantidiarrheal activities of C. pentadactylon. Its antiprotozoal, antibacterial, and antidiarrheal properties are in good agreement with the traditional medicinal use of C. pentadactylon for the treatment of infectious diarrea. More information:...
Kidneywood / Eysenhardtia polystachya

Kidneywood / Eysenhardtia polystachya

The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. The EE was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, and its fractions at 25 mg/kg/day in all animal models. Antiarthritic activity was evaluated using a complete Freund´s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rheumatoid arthritis model in rats. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by changes in paw oedema, body weight, arthritic index, radiological scores, histological assessment of synovial joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, serum rheumatoid factor, serum C-reactive protein and serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using an acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction test and a hot-plate test in mice. EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management. Keywords:...
Reishi / Ganoderma lucidum

Reishi / Ganoderma lucidum

Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment(Review) Background Ganoderma lucidum is a natural medicine that is widely used and recommended by Asian physicians and naturopaths for its supportingeffe cts on immune system. Laborator y research and a handful of preclinical trials have suggested that Ganoderma lucidum carries promisinganticancer and immunomodulatory properties. The popularity of taking G. lucidum as an alternative medicine has been increasing incancer patients. However, there is no systematic review that has been conducted to evaluate th e actual benefits of Ganoderma lucidum in cancertreatment. Objectives To evaluate the clinical effects of G. lucidum on long-term sur vival, tumour response, host immune functions and quality of life incancer patients, as well as adverse events associated with its use. Search methods We searched an extensive set of databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EM-BASE, NIH, AMED, CBM, CNKI, CMCC and VIP Information/Chinese Scientific Journals Database was search ed f or randomisedcontrolle d trials (RCTs) in October 2011. Other strategies used were scanning the references of articles retrieved, handsearching of the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms and contact with herbal medicine experts and manufacturers of Ganoderma lucidum. For thisupdate we updated the searches in February 2016. Selection criteria To be eligible for being included in this review, studies had to be RCTs comparing the ef ficacy of Ganoderma lucidum medications to active orplacebo control in patients with cancer that had been diagnosed by pathology. All types and stages of cancer were eligible for inclusion. Trials were not restricted on the basis of language. Data collection and analysis Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria and...
Mullein flower / Gnaphalium oxyphyllum

Mullein flower / Gnaphalium oxyphyllum

The Effect of Gnaphalium oxyphyllum var. natalie on Cancer and Blood Cells Gnaphalium oxyphyllum DC is a medicinal plant whose common uses by Mexican people include the treatment of cancer. The toxicity of the aqueous and organic fractions as well as the aqueous decoction of Gnaphalium oxyphyllum var. natalie F. J. Espinosa were assessed on three human cancer cell lines as well as in blood cells in healthy human lymphocyte cultures. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by the Sulforhodamine B method on HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), T47D (human breast carcinoma) and 22Rv1 (human prostate carcinoma cancer). Colchicine was used as positive control. The decoction was also tested on lymphocytes from healthy donors through the mitotic index as biomarker. We used whole blood for these cultures and estimated the effect of the extract on platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes. The aqueous decoction was cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 μg/mL) on the three cancer cell lines. The mitotic index in the exposed lymphocyte cultures did not significantly differ from the control nor the blood counts showed any difference between the experimental and control cultures. These results prove that the toxic effect of the aqueous decoction of Gnaphalium oxyphyllum var. natalie is specific for cancer cell lines. Key words: Gnaphalium oxyphyllum, cancer cell lines, cytotoxicity, lymphocyte culture, mitotic index. More information: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3203/5ca225b1985eb8c769eaea4e9789a203fed3. Mullein flower...