Wild marjoram / Origanum vulgare

Wild marjoram / Origanum vulgare

Variability of Essential Oil Content and Composition of Origanum vulgare L. Populations from a North Mediterranean Area (Liguria Region, Northern Italy) Native populations of Origanum vulgare L. from the Liguria and Emilia regions of northern Italy were analysed for essential oil content and composition. Morphological characters suggested that the Ligurian samples belonged to the ssp. viride. The essential oil content of in¯orescences ranged from less than 5 mg gÿ1 in the samples from Emilia, to more than 50 mg gÿ1 in some Ligurian samples, values similar to those reported for ssp. hirtum from southern Italy. Sixty-four compounds were identi®ed in the essential oil. The samples were allotted to three main groups on the basis of oil composition: the ®rst group had a high content of components belonging to the carvacrol/thymol biosynthetic pathway; the second was characterized by a di€erent sesquiterpene composition and a high linalool content; and the third, including the two samples of ssp. vulgare from Emilia, was characterized by the presence of abundant sesquiterpenes. The high essential oil content of the samples studied, and the presence of some particular morphological characters suggest that the taxonomy of O. vulgare, especially in its western distribution area, needs further investigation. Linalool types, although often not considered as `typical oregano’, may be useful in promoting wider utilization of the biodiversity of this species. Key words: Oregano, Origanum vulgare L., ssp. viride, ssp. vulgare, ssp. hirtum, essential oil, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, genetic resources, chemotypes, quality, Mediterranean. More information: https://watermark.silverchair.com/860471.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAhowggIWBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggIHMIICAwIBADCCAfwGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMTOD1cmV01gzzgWtbAgEQgIIBzbT8-MrmwdZzVSGF6983DNiYCif0V4_EutKzwNCx31nQGKhlxRtROU9X6_bcJ8Mwd-YqTwA_tn06uDVGfIsBVDyhyRkDicutFEVcsK9GVTfxEcRAVsyrJx8fDFO4NQwdqG72g2baCNZ9fcRkU7t_JJF4uqZl5K9Dr0MaoCpAqU2eugDanfzVv-bH1qgFX6W_d1b0ffas0MMEK3RBVc5PCaNoJuKli3GSnM-_Qgj7C3ZXeTnXDwwrdc75mMlDb2lU8weUdBp4eM10zq_C9jK1BaT1wZCUTafLnPNJtlLBvklZnVresUOM9oAwxD5ymsNMtU43DFMV3str9UAjTqcvlJ7w3EmAJCGnzapAxma8SFT70myyPfrXyEtxrfTwau82UZj8HLd8rTX2CwG5eb-YsVoTslbpE3uj8JlzMRLX_rARfxDgAocy725l0NoRXX9VEiUtgHSq77MvBpxbEiBx0XlbRZ-sa7PgcogqHUfbVREnsHTmyQ474MK5TMci0qsYN4OSSeQqP3o0LjFM6R_FSeiEdbNDjc6yloq1JqcWBps8jeEQ18fXNE7g_XeXWertQTbcWn7aJ20r7R3db47pGYIoEwyiRzdA2WwdpI1S Effect of Origanum vulgare Extract on Immune Responses and Heamatological Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) In this study, Origanum vulgare extract...
Wormwood / Artemisia absinthium

Wormwood / Artemisia absinthium

Effect of water extracts from Artemisia absinthium L. on feeding of selected pests and their response to the odor of this plant The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts from fresh and dry matter of Artemisia absinthium L. on the feeding of selected pests. Moreover their reactions on the smell of this plant by using the olfactometer were examined. Beetles feeding intensity assessment was carried out by measuring the surface of feeds caused by Sitona lineatus L. In the case of Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris contact poisoning on mortality of adults and larvae were tested. In determining the effect of extracts of Artemisia absinthium L. on Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. food weight eaten by adult beetles and larvae and changes in larvae body weight were established. In studies on the olfactory reaction of abovementioned insects, for S. lineatus and L. decemlineata glass olfactometer “Y-tube” was used and for winged A. pisum females – 4-armed arena olfactometer. The results of the experiment showed that extract from dry matter of A. absinthium L. at concentration of 10% greatly reduced feeding of Sitona lineatus L. The highest mortality of A. pisum Harris was observed in objects in which extracts from dry and fresh matter of the highest concentrations (10% and 30% respectivelly) were applied. Extract from fresh matter in concentration of 30% made the greatest contribution to reduce feeding of L. decemlineata Say, while extract made from the dry matter at concentration of 10% significantly contributed to reduce the weight of food eaten by the larvae of this pest. Studies using the olfactometer showed a strong deterring reaction...
Cuachalalate / Amphypterygium adstringens

Cuachalalate / Amphypterygium adstringens

Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis. More information: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5011223/ Long-chain phenols from the bark of Amphypterygium adstringens The hexane extract of the stem bark of Amphypterygium adstringens at a dose of 100 mg/kg subcutaneously exhibited significant hypocholesterolemic effect on 24-h fasted rats, lowering the cholesterol levels by 31%, an effect similar to 15 mg/kg estrone given by the same route....
Hamula / Brickellia cavanillesii

Hamula / Brickellia cavanillesii

Anxiolytic-like effects and toxicological studies of Brickellia cavanillesii (Cass.) A. Gray in experimental mice models Ethnopharmacological relevance: Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) (Cass.) A. Gray is one of the popular plants consumed in Central America and Mexico for the treatment of several diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and anxiety, among others. Aim of the study: To determine the anxiolytic-like effect of Brickellia cavanillesii and the safety of its use through toxicological studies. Material and methods: Anxiolytic-like effects of soluble-methanol extract of Brickellia cavanillesii (MEBc) were evaluated in ambulatory activity (open-field test), hole-board test, cylinder of exploration, the elevated plus-maze and the potentiation of the sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis mice models. On the other hand, in vivo toxicological studies were conducted on acute and sub-acute mice models recommended by OECD. Active MEBc was subjected to phytochemical studies through conventional chromatographic techniques to isolate bioactive compounds. Results: MEBc (100 mg/Kg) showed significant anxiolytic-like effect on animal model used (po0.05). The phytochemical analysis of MEBc allowed the isolation of two major compounds nicotiflorin and acacetin, among others. Both compounds were found to be partially responsible for the anxiolytic-like effects. Moreover, a median lethal dose (LD50) higher than 2000 mg/Kg was determined in mice and subacute oral administration of MEBc (100 mg/Kg) did not alter body weight, clinical chemistry parameters (ALT and AST) and it did not induce any toxic nor alteration in the liver, kidney and heart functions. Conclusions: In current investigation, we have shown that MEBc has a wide range of pharmacology– toxicology patterns. The results support further investigation of MEBc as a potential anxiolytic phytomedicinal agent. More information: http://www.ciq.uaem.mx/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/29BAG2016JEt90.pdf Hamula...
Burdock / Arctium lappa

Burdock / Arctium lappa

Prebiotic effects of inulin extracted from burdock (Arctium lappa) in broilers The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic effect of burdock (Arctium lappa) in commercial poultry. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance parameters and the protection after challenge with Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Kedougou, with and without Bifidobacterium probiotic. In two trials, the chickens were fed with flour burdock 1% during 42 days. In the other two, the chickens were fed with fructan extracted from burdock (inulin), by gavage, at a concentration of 100 mg/bird, during the first three days of life. The results showed that the broilers treated with burdock flour showed underperformed, with less weight gain from the second week, and the worst results in the fattening stage. The treated birds had diarrhea and impaired intestinal integrity. However, the groups treated with the flour had a lower rate of intestinal colonization by Salmonella Kedougou, after challenge. No statistically significant differences were detected in the performance parameters of broilers receiving the inulin, and the morphometric analysis showed no lesions in the intestinal villi. However, there was no protection in the challenge with Salmonella Enteritidis, regardless of association with probiotic. These results demonstrated that the manner of administration has influence on the prebiotic effect of burdock. The burdock flour was administered for 42 days, which may have influenced intestinal mucosal injury. Instead, the inulin was given only in the first three days, which may have been insufficient for protection against Salmonella. New experiments are needed to determine an able formulation for a protective effect, without negative impact on growth, weight gain and feed conversion...
Gumbo limbo / Bursera simaruba

Gumbo limbo / Bursera simaruba

Lianas as Structural Parasites: The Gumbo limbo Bursera Simaruba Example The Fecundity of female Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae) trees was found to be negatively correlated with their degree of coverage by lianas in the deciduous forests of Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. Experimental reduction of the liana of heavily overgrown trees resulted in an increase in fruit production. The finding that lianas are detrimental to the fecundity of their hosts, coupled with the fact that lianas require physical contact with trees as a consequence of their growth form, suggests that lianas should be viewed as structural parasites of the trees that support them. More information: https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.2307/1938806 Leaf and Bark Essential Oil Compositions of Bursera simaruba from Monteverde, Costa Rica The leaf and bark essential oils of Gumbo limbo Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. from Monteverde, Costa Rica were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. The leaf oil was dominated by the monoterpene o-cymene (65.2%), while the bark oil had α-phellandrene (29.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.3%), o-cymene (13.1%), and α-thujene (11.9%) as major components. The essential oil compositions of B. simaruba from Monteverde, Costa Rica, were markedly different from those previously reported from Jamaica or Guadeloupe. More information: http://www.essencejournal.com/pdf/2014/vol1issue3/PartA/10-969.pdf Gumbo limbo...