Heterotheca inuloides: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect
Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) is used in the traditional medicine of Mexico. The aqueous extract obtained from the flowers of H. inuloides was assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced edema test. At 100 mg/kg, i.p, it produced 29% inhibition of inflammation. Ethyl ether (HI-1), butanol (HI-2) and aqueous fraction (HI-3) were obtained from the aqueous extract. The biological assay, by carrageenan-induced edema test, gave the following values (% inhibition): HI-1, 19.9; HI-2, 58.0 and HI-3, 30.0. HI-2 was significantly more effective than HI-1 and HI-3. The dose-effect curve of HI-2 was obtained and the calculated ED50 was 29.7 (22.5–39.2) mg/kg. The peritoneal examination after the treatment with HI-2 showed that the anti-inflammatory action of H. inuloides was not due to an irritating effect at the injection site. At 50–100 mg/kg, i.p., HI-2 inhibited inflammation induced by dextran (38.9–68.1% inhibition) and arachidonic acid (0–33.9 %). No effect was observed at the same doses for zymosan or C16-paf-induced edema. In addition, HI-2 reduced abdominal constrictions in mice following injection of acetic acid: at 50–100 mg/kg, it gave 73.8–78.2% inhibition. The ulcerogenic assay showed that ulcer indices after HI-2 i.p. treatment were 0.590.5 at 50 mg/kg and 1.290.4 at 100 mg/kg. The results showed related anti-inflammatory activity and the analgesic effect of HI-2. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Heterotheca inuloides; Asteraceae; Anti-inflammatory activity; Analgesic effect
Fast Ultrasound‐assisted Extraction of Polar (phenols) and Nonpolar (lipids) Fractions in Heterotheca inuloides Cass.
Introduction – Heterotheca inuloides Cass., also known as “arnica”, is used in traditional medicine in Mexico.
Objective – Development of fast methods for the extraction of lipidic and phenolic fractions from arnica plants and their subsequent characterization.
Methodology – Ultrasound was applied to accelerate extraction of the target compounds from this plant and reduce the use of organic solvents as compared with conventional methods. Gas chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with diode‐array detection were used for the characterization of the lipidic and phenolic fractions, respectively.
Results – Under optimal extraction conditions, 9 and 55 min were necessary to complete extraction of the lipidic and phenolic fractions, respectively. The fatty acids present at the highest concentrations in H. inuloides were eicosatetraenoic n3 (24.6 μg/g), cis‐9‐hexadecenoic n7 (23.1 μg/g), exacosanoic (22.7 μg/g) and cis‐9‐octadecenoic acid (21.3 μg/g), while the rest were in the range 7.6–1.3 μg/g. The most concentrated phenols were guaiacol (41.5 μg/g), catechin (38.7 μg/g), ellagic acid (35.9 μg/g), carbolic acid (24.2 μg/g) and p‐coumaric acid (19.5 μg/g), while the rest were in the range 5.1–0.4 μg/g.
Conclusion – Ultrasound reduces the time necessary to complete the extraction 160 and 26 times, the extraction volume 2.5 and 4 times, and increases the extraction efficiency 5 and 3 times for lipidic and phenolic fractions, respectively, in comparison with conventional extraction methods. In addition, the characterization of the lipidic and phenolic fractions constitutes a first approach to the H. inuloides metabolome.