Radix cum Herba Taraxaci consists of the entire plant of Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers (Asteraceae).
For Taraxacum officinale: Leontodon offi cinale With., L. taraxacum L. Taraxacum officinale (With.) Wigg., T. dens leonis Desf., T. vulgare Schrank.
Selected vernacular names
Ackerzichorie, amargon, blowball, Butterblume, cankerwort, capo di frate, chicoria amarga, cicoria sarvatica, cicouureya de la bonne, cicoureya deis
prats, dandelion, dent-de-lion, dente di leone, dhudal, diente de leon, dhorsat al ajouz, dudhi, engraissa-porc, florion d’or, gol ghased, Gemeiner Löwenzahn, gobesag, Irish daisy, hindabaa beri, hokgei, kanphul, kanphuli, kasni sahraii, Kettenblume, khass berri, Kuhblume, lagagna, laiteron, lechuguilla, lion’s tooth, Löwenzahn, maaritpauncin, marrara, milk gowan, min-deul-rre, monk’s head, mourayr, mourre de por, mourre de pouerc, oduwantschiki, paardebloem, patalagagna, peirin, Pfaffendistel, Pfaffenröhrlein, Pferdeblume, pilli-pilli, piochoublit, piss-a-bed, pissa-chin, pissanliech, pissenlit, poirin, po-kong-young, porcin, pu gong ying, puffball, pugongying, Pusteblume, ringeblume, salatta merra, sanalotodo, saris berri, seiyo-tanpopo, sofi one, srissi, tarakh-chaqoune, tarkhshaquin, tarassaco, taraxaco, telma retaga, Wiesenlattich, witch gowan, yellow gowan.
A perennial herb consisting of an underground, long, straight, tapering, fleshy brown root, which is continued upward as a simple or branched rhizome.
From the rhizome arises a rosette of bright-green runcinate leaves and later, from the centre of the rosette, a hollow scape, 6–30 cm high bearing on its summit a broad orange-yellow head of ligulate flowers.
Fruits are fusiform, greenish-brown achenes, terminating in a slender stalk crowned by a silky, spreading pappus, and borne on a globular fruiting head.
A crumpled and rolled mass.
Roots conical, frequently curved, tapering, often broken into irregular pieces, externally brown.
Root stock with brown or yellowish-white hairs.
Leaves basal, frequently crumpled and broken; when whole, oblanceolate, greenish-brown or dark green with a pronounced midrib; apex acute or obtuse; margins lobate or pinnatifi d.
Pedicels one or more, each with a capitulum; involucre several rows, the inner row relatively long; corolla yellowish-brown or pale yellowishwhite.
Epidermal cells on both leaf surfaces have sinuous anticlinal walls, cuticle striations distinct or sparsely visible.
Both leaf surfaces bear non-glandular hairs with three to nine cells, 17–34 μm in diameter. Stomata, occurring more frequently on the lower surface, anomocytic or anisocytic, with three to six subsidiary cells.
Mesophyll contains fine crystals of calcium oxalate. Transverse section of root shows cork with several layers of brown cells. Phloem broad, groups of laticiferous tubes arranged in several interrupted rings.
Xylem relatively small, with indistinct rays, vessels large, scattered. Parenchymatous cells contain inulin.
Powdered plant material
Greenish yellow. Large root parenchymatous cells, brown reticulate vessels
and tracheids and non-lignifi ed fibres.
Leaf fragments with sinuous, anticlinal-walled epidermal cells and a few anomocytic stomata. Numerous narrow annular thickened vessels and fragments of brown laticiferous tissues
Uses supported by clinical data
No information available.
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
To stimulate diuresis , increase bile flow and stimulate appetite, and for treatment of dyspepsia.
Uses described in traditional medicine
As a galactagogue, laxative and tonic.
Treatment of boils and sores, diabetes, fever, inflammation of the eye, insomnia, sore throat, lung abscess, jaundice, rheumatism and urinary tract infections .
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity
External applications of 2.0 mg/ear of a methanol extract of the dried leaves to mice reduced ear inflammation induced by 12Otetradecanoylphorbol13acetate.
Intragastric administration of 1.0 g/kg body weight (bw) of a 95% ethanol extract of the whole plant to mice inhibited benzoquinone-induced writhing.
Intraperitoneal administration of 100.0 mg/kg bw of a 95% ethanol extract of the whole plant to mice inhibited carrageenan induced footpad oedema by 42%, and reduced pain as measured by the hot plate test and benzoquinone induced
Intragastric administration of 100.0 mg/kg bw of an 80% ethanol extract of the dried roots to rats inhibited carrageenan-induced footpad oedema by 25%, compared with 45% inhibition resulting from administration of 5.0 mg/kg bw of indometacin.
Intragastric administration of 2.0 g/kg bw of an aqueous extract of the whole plant to rats protected the animals against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration.
A methanol extract, however, was not active.
Intragastric administration of an aqueous or 95% ethanol extract of the whole plant (dose not specifi ed) to rats increased bile secretion by 40%.
Intragastric administration of 8.0–50.0 ml/kg bw of a 95% ethanol extract of the whole plant to rats induced diuresis and reduced body weight.
Intragastric administration of 0.1 ml/kg bw of a 30% ethanol extract of the whole plant to mice induced diuresis.
However, intragastric administration of 50.0 mg/kg bw of a chloroform, methanol or petroleum ether extract of the roots to mice did not consistently increase urine output.