Folium Rosmarini

Definition

Folium Rosmarini consists of the whole dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis
L. (Lamiaceae).

Synonyms

No information was found.

Selected vernacular names

Alecrim, azir, biberine, biberye, boithran, common rosemary, echter Rosmarin, encensier, garden rosemary, gusmarino, hasalban, hatsa louban, hhassâ lubân, iklil, iklil el jabal, iklil kuhi, kusdilli, mannenrou, old man, romani, romarin, romero, romero blanco, rosmariin, Rosmarin, rosmarina, rosmarini, rosmarino, rosemary, tresmarino.

Description

Description

A bushy, low, much branched, perennial sub-shrub attaining a height of about 1 m. Leaves leathery with fringed margin, 1.0–2.5 cm long, aromatic, evergreen, opposite, sessile, linear and coriaceous.

Old branches brown in colour. Spiciform inflorescences of pale blue or light lilac flowers spotted with purple, with the two stamens projecting far beyond the corolla.

General appearance

General appearance

Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, curved, 1–4 cm long, 2–4 mm wide; coriaceous, greyish-green or occasionally brownish; margins entire and
strongly revolute, apex obtuse, base tapering and non-petiolate; upper surface dark green, reticulately pitted, lower surface tomentose.

Occasional pieces of stems up to 4 cm long, 1–2 mm wide, dark brown to greenish, tomentose or woody with numerous opposite and decussate leaf scars.

Organoleptic properties

Odour: strongly aromatic; taste: pungently aromatic, camphoraceous and bitter.

Microscopic characteristics

Leaf dorsiventral; upper epidermal cells polygonal with slightly thickened walls and occasional pits; lower epidermal cells sinuous; numerous diacytic stomata on the lower surface only; very abundant uniseriate, multicellular, much branched covering trichomes on the lower epidermis, also glandular trichomes with a unicellular stalk and unicellular, bicellular or multicellular head occurring on both epidermises; hypodermis underlying the upper epidermis composed of large, ovoid cells with thickened and beaded anticlinal walls; these cells extending across the lamina at intervals, separating the two-layered palisade into large, crescent-shaped areas, each with a group of spongy mesophyll.

Powdered plant material

Greyish-green to yellowish-green.

Shows fragments of lower epidermis with straight to sinuous-walled cells and numerous diacytic stomata; fragments of the upper epidermis with straight-walled cells, slightly thickened and pitted, and an underlying hypodermis composed of large, irregular cells with thickened and beaded anticlinal walls; fragments in sectional view showing the hypodermal cells extending across the lamina at intervals, separating the one or two-layered palisade into large, crescent-shaped areas; numerous multicellular, extensively branched, covering trichomes of the lower epidermis and rare conical covering trichomes of the upper epidermis; glandular trichomes of 2 types, the majority with a short, unicellular stalk and a radiate head composed of 8 cells, others, less abundant, with a unicellular stalk and a spherical, unicellular or bicellular head.

Occasional cork fragments, fibres, vascular tissue and lignified parenchyma from the stems.

Medicinal uses

Medicinal uses

Uses supported by clinical data

None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents

Orally as a carminative and spasmolytic to treat dyspepsia.

Externally for supportive therapy of rheumatism and circulatory disorders.

Uses described in traditional medicine

Orally as a cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue and as a tonic.

Also used in the management of headache, menstrual disorders, nervous menstrual complaints, tiredness and defective memory.

Used externally for treatment of spraining and bruising.

Pharmacology

Pharmacology

Experimental pharmacology

Antihepatotoxic activity

Intragastric administration of 200.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) of a standardized
methanol extract of the leaves (corresponding to 6.04 mg/kg bw of carnosol) to rats, 1 hour after treatment of the animals with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), fully prevented CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver.

The CCl4-induced increase in plasma bilirubin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase activity was completely normalized after treatment with the extract.

The treatment also resulted in a significant recovery from CCl4-induced decrease in liver glycogen content.

The extract also increased liver cytosolic reduced glutathione activity and produced an additional increase in plasma glutathione activity in rats treated
with CCl4.

Histological evaluation showed that the extract partially prevented CCl4-induced inflammation, necrosis and vacuolation.

The hepatoprotective and antimutagenic effects of an ethanol extract of the leaves were investigated using CCl4 and cyclophosphamide as the hepatotoxic and mutagenic compounds.

The results indicated that intragastric administration of the ethanol extract (1.5 g/kg bw) to rats for 3 weeks produced a pronounced hepatoprotective effect as compared with silymarin (reference compound) due to the amelioration of most of the serum and liver parameters studied and confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue.

Pretreatment of mice for 7 days with the essential oil (1.1 mg/g bw) followed by intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide significantly reduced the induced mitodepression in the bone marrow cells of the animals.

Anti-inflammatory activity

Treatment of mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with carnosol markedly reduced lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in a concentration related manner with an IC50 of 9.4 μM.

Western blot, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and northern blot analyses demonstrated that carnosol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression.

Carnosol treatment reduced the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B subunits and the binding activity of nuclear factor-B DNA in activated macrophages. Carnosol also inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-B promoter activity in a transient transfection assay.

These activities were due to down-regulation of inhibitor B kinase activity by carnosol (5 μM), which in turn inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced phosphorylation as well as degradation of inhibitor B. Carnosol also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation at a higher concentration (20 μM).

These results suggest that carnosol suppresses production of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression by inhibiting activation of nuclear factor-B, and provide possible mechanisms for its anti-inflammatory activity.

We offer raw herbals, tintures, extracts, dry extracts, tea; for retail consumers and wholesale customers, since one pound to one container